Every book is personally photographed, assessed & graded as follows, although this can be subjective.


Just what it says, direct from the publisher or distributor.

Like New

Could be easily mistaken for brand new, may have been carefully read, no real defects or faults.

NOTE: From here on, there may be "+" and "-" in a grade, which will mean that it is above the grade noted but not quite to the next higher grade for "+", and that it is below the grade noted but not quite to the next lower grade for "-".

Very Good

A used book showing some small signs of wear.  No underlining/highlighting of text, no writing in margins. In great condition for a used book. 


The average used, worn book that has all pages present. Any major defects noted, other minor defects may not be noted.


A book with significant wear & faults, still a reading copy with full text still readable, may lack endpapers. Any major defects noted.


All book measurements are approximate


Book Terminology 

Tanning - age tanning or browning/yellowing occurs over time on the pages of books,  tanning tends to start on the outside of the pages and progresses inward over time, often creating a brownish or yellowish border around the page edges.

Foxed Foxing - age-related brown or brown-yellowish spotting of the paper caused by a chemical reaction over time.

Sunned - damage done to a book cover or dust jacket caused by exposure to direct sunlight.

Closed Tear - indicates a torn page in which no material has been lost. A closed tear can be pressed back into place or sometimes fixed with archival repair tape.

Ex-library – the book was once owned by, and circulated in, a public library.  This book could well be in any of the above general categories but more often than not has been well used.  May have library stickers, stamps, or markings.