Every book is photographed, assessed & graded as follows, although descriptions can be subjective.
Please note that these are secondhand books so please ask if you have any additional questions about the condition of a particular book or if you would like more photos.
Just what it says, direct from the publisher or distributor.
Fresh, crisp, unblemished, unread. As if newly purchased.
Almost as new. May lack freshness or show the mere traces of handling or use. Considered among many to be the premium grade for older editions.
Marginally fine. These books don't make the fine grade as they may have the smallest stain, bumping to corners, or the previous owner’s names. Dust Jackets with closed tears, creases, etc. Any major defects noted.
Note: From here on, there may be "+" and "-" in a grade, which will mean that it is above the grade noted but not quite to the next higher grade for "+", and that it is below the grade noted but not quite to the next lower grade for "-".
A used book showing some modest signs of wear; blemishing; (scuffs, nicks, creasing, fading, small stains, small DJ tears). Still in great condition for a used book. Any major defects noted.
The average used, worn book that has all pages present. May have fading, soiling, tears, scuffs, nicks, heavy creasing, underlining, highlighting, DJ with chips/tears. Any major defects noted, other minor defects may not be noted.
A book with significant wear & faults, still a reading copy with full text still readable, may lack endpapers. Any major defects noted.
Much use & sufficiently worn and/or soiled, stained, may have loose joints, hinges or pages. These are books that have been saved from being sent to the landfill.
All book measurements are approximate
Tanning - age tanning or browning/yellowing occurs over time on the pages of books, tanning tends to start on the outside of the pages and progresses inward over time, often creating a brownish or yellowish border around the page edges.
Foxed / Foxing - age-related brown or brown-yellowish spotting of the paper caused by a chemical reaction over time.
Sunned - damage done to a book cover or dust jacket caused by exposure to direct sunlight.
Closed Tear - indicates a torn page in which no material has been lost. A closed tear can be pressed back into place or sometimes fixed with archival repair tape.
Ex-library – the book was once owned by, and circulated in, a public library. This book could well be in any of the above general categories but more often than not has been well used. May have library stickers, stamps, or markings.